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Fortran Tutorials


  1. Introduction of Fortran
    Fortran is a general purpose programming language, mainly intended for mathematical computations in e.g. engineering. Fortran is an acronym for FORmula TRANslation, and was originally capitalized as FORTRAN. However, following the current trend to only capitalize the first letter in acronyms, we will call it Fortran. Fortran was the first ever high-level programming language. The work on Fortran started in the 1950's at IBM and there have been many versions since. By convention, a Fortran version is denoted by the last two digits of the year the standard was proposed.
  2. Fortran 90 Tutorial
    Full details of all the items in this tutorial can be found in Fortran 90/95 Explained, by M. Metcalf and J. Reid, (Oxford, 1996), the book upon which it has been based.
  3. Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 Programmer
    This tutorial is written in order to ease the transition from the very common and popular programming language Fortran 77 to the more modern Fortran 90. This transition uses the fact that Fortran 77 is a pure subset of Fortran 90. 
    This HTML version can be used from both UNIX and Windows. It is recommended that the reader has the following features implemented in such a way that the following four fonts are easily distinguished: Bold font, Italic font, Courier or TTY font, and normal font. The Courier font is being used for all Fortran words and all code. 
  4. Fortran 77
    A computer (often called simply a machine) is a device for the fast, accurate processing of symbolic information under the control of a stored sequence of instructions called a program. The memory stores programs and information. It consists of an array of storage units called words, all of equal length and numbered in sequence. The number of each word is called its address. Each word contains a row of storage elements, which can individually be set to either of two states, conventionally represented as 0 and 1. Thus information is represented by binary codes. 
  5. High Performance Fortran in Practice
    High Performance Fortran (HPF) was defined in 1993 to provide a portable syntax for expressing data-parallel computations in Fortran. Since the appearance of the High Performance Fortran Language Specification (available as an issue of Scientific Programming and by ftp, gopher, and WWW), there has been great interest in HPF as a language for efficient parallel computation. The intended audience of this tutorial is researchers and practitioners who are interested in applying data-parallel computation to scientific programs. Attendees should have some knowledge of FORTRAN 77 (or a similar imperative sequential programming language); a basic knowledge of scientific computation and/or parallelism is also useful, but not essential.
  6. F90 Course Development
    The University is developing a number of seminars / courses in Fortran 90 aimed at increasing user awareness of the new Fortran standard. The course is available in two different formats: an interactive HTML / Java document and a more traditional OHP slides plus Notes package. The HTML / Java version is very comprehensive and contains information on the whole of the language. The taught courses come in a handful of variants of differing lengths. Comprehensive Interactive HTML / Java Course Modular Programming with Fortran 90 is designed for the those with programming experience in a high-level language who wish to receive extensive tuition in Fortran 90. All language features are described in detail with the exception of some of the more obscure facets of I/O!
  7. Michael Metcalf's Fortran 90 CNL Articles
    In order to discuss this topic we need some definitions. In logical terms, an executable program consists of one main program and zero or more subprograms (or procedures) - these do something. Subprograms are either functions or subroutines, which are either external, internal or module subroutines. (External subroutines are what we know from FORTRAN 77.). From an organizational point of view, however, a complete program consists of program units. These are either main programs, external subprograms or modules and can be separately compiled. 
  8. Fortran 90 and Computational Science
    This electronic book is copyrighted, and protected by the copyright laws of the United States. This (and all associated documents in the system) must contain the above copyright notice. If this electronic book is used anywhere other than the project's original system, CSEP must be notified in writing (email is acceptable) and the copyright notice must remain intact. The diagram in Figure 1 shows the major components of Fortran 90 [1],[2]. The size of each slice of this ``pie" is roughly proportional to the number of syntax rules needed to describe the features associated with that slice, and hence is a measure of the structural complexity of those features. (These measures should not, however, be taken as an indication of conceptual or semantic complexity nor of implementation effort-syntactic complexity may or may not be related to these other forms of complexity.).
  9. Fortran 90 Tutorial
    Constants or more formally literal constants are the tokens used to denote the value of a particular type. Fortran has five types of constants: integer, real, complex, logical, and character string.
  10. FORTRAN 77 Reference
    The letters A-Z and digits 0-9 are often grouped together and referred to as alpha-numeric characters. Although this character set seems somewhat limited, it should be available on any computer. The blank character is ignored except within character constants and the currency symbol is not actually used. Of course, most computer keyboards provide many other characters, not least of which are the lower-case letters. Any printable characters may be used within comments and character constants.





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