Apache Struts is an open-source framework that is used for developing Java web application. Originally developed by the programmer and author Craig R. McClanahan, this was later taken over by the Apache Software Foundation in 2002. Struts have provided an excellent framework for developing application easily by organizing JSP and Servlet
based on HTML formats and Java code. Strut1 with all standard Java technologies and packages of Jakarta assists to create an extensible development environment. However, with the growing demand of web application,
Strut 1 does not stand firm and needs to be changed with demand. This
leads to the creation of Strut2, which is more developer friendly with features like Ajax, rapid development and extensibility.
Struts is a well-organized framework based on MVC architecture. In Model-View-Controller Architecture, Model stands for the business or database code, View represents the page design code and the Controller for navigational code. All these together makes Struts an essential framework for building Java applications. But with the development of new and lightweight MVC based framworks like Spring, Stripes and Tapestry, it becomes necessary to modify the Struts framework. So, the team of Apache Struts and another J2EE framework, WebWork of OpenSymphony joined hand together to develop an advanced framework with all possible developing features that will make it developer and user friendly.
Strut2 contains the combined features of Struts Ti and WebWork 2 projects that advocates higher level application by using the architecture of WebWork2 with features including a plugin framework, a new API, Ajax tags etc. So the Struts communities and the WebWork team brought together several special features in WebWork2 to make it more advance in the Open Source world. Later the name of WebWork2 has changed to Struts2. Hence, Apache Strut 2 is a dynamic, extensible framework for a complete application development from building, deploying and maintaining.
WebWork is a framework for web-application development
that has been included in Struts framework 2.0 release. It has some unique
concepts and constructs like its compatibility of working within existing Web
APIs in Java rather than trying to replace them completely. It has been built
specifically taking into account the developer?s productivity and code
simplicity. Furthermore it is completely context dependent that provides a
wrapper around XWork. When working on web applications the web work provides a
context that helps web developer in specific implementations.
While, XWork provides a mechanism that is used for configuration and factory implementation management. This mechanism is dependencies inject mechanism.