Khurram, better known as Shah Jahan which means ruler of the world, son of Jahangir, built many spectacles of great work in architecture including many halls of the Agra Fort and more in Delhi. He received many titles, 'builder of marvels' is one which he received most suited for his love for art and architecture. But Shah Jahan is probably known more so for the great Mughal structure that stands out till today in the form of the Taj Mahal .The Taj built during the reign of Shah Jahan took 17 long years to be completed. Its construction started in the year 1631 A.D. and was finally completed in the year 1648 A.D. It was built by the emperor in memory of his deceased and beloved wife Arjumand Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, meaning 'Jewel of the Palace'. Shah Jahan first met the queen when he was just 14 years of age in 1607 A.D. In the year 1612, almost five years after their first meeting, Shah Jahan was married to Mumtaz, a Persian princess. Almost after two decades in 1631 A.D. , the queen died while delivering their fourteenth child at Burhanpur while accompanying the king on a military expedition. The emperor was believed to have been extremely disturbed and emotionally weak. So deep was his love, that he had promised his wife not to marry again. For a long time, there was to be no feast or music or any celebration of any kind at the court. It was in this state of extreme grief that inspired the emperor to build the most beautiful monument the world would have ever witnessed. Although it was no more possible for him to be with his love, his love for her remained in his memory even after she had gone. Shah Jahan did have other wives too, but it is undoubted that Mumtaz Mahal had a special place in his life.
The Taj was the effort of more than 20000 labourers from North West of the subcontinent, and Central Asia which included artisans, architects, and stone cutters, along with the help of hundreds of Elephants that went behind making the Taj what it is today. The site of the Taj was originally owned by Raja Jai Singh, the grandson of Raja Man Singh of Amber. Shah Jahan offered four havelis to the King from Amber in exchange for the site on which the Taj stands today. Many believe that the site was chosen such that the emperor could see the memorial of his beloved from his palace at Agra Fort. The Structure of the Taj is built within a rectangular garden also known as charbagh, a typical of Mughal gardens. It has three gateways in three sides and the river Yamuna on the remaining side. In terms of the chief architects, there are many controversies as to who was at the centre of building such a fine piece of art. But there seems to be more than a single architect involved in planning and building of the great Taj. Some of the most prominent names in relation to this, are Ustad Isa Afandi ,Ustad Ahmed who had designed the Red fort in Delhi , Ab dul Karim Ma?mur Khan and Makramat Khan. But Shah Jahan himself was talented in terms of art and architecture and there are mentions that he had a great involvement in creating this spectacle to keep his love eternal. He involved artists from various parts of the world starting from France, Turkey, Persia and India. He is said to have co-ordinated the ideas of the most skilled craftsmen known at the time and involved himself to the work of the Taj. The dome however, is credited in the name of Ismail Khan. There is a common belief that the emperor had the right hand of the chief architect, Ustad Isa Afandi?s hand cut off so that he may not be able to create such a beautiful structure again. But this belief is questionable since Shah Jahan is believed to have planned a replica of the Taj in black marble on the other side of the river Yamuna, on which the Mehtab Garden is situated. This structure is believed to have been planned by the emperor to ded