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php Operators

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Operators are one of the important feature of every language.

php Operators:

     

Operators are one of the important feature of every language. In php operators are classified in following categories:

  1. ArithmeticOperator
  2. Comparison Operator
  3. Assignment Operator
  4. Logical Operator
  5. String Operator
  6. Bitwise Operator
  7. Error Control Operator
  8. Execution Operators
  9. Array Operators
  10. Type Operators

1.    Arithmetic Operators

Name Symbol Example Output
Addition + 2+2 4
Subtraction - 2-2 0
Division / 2/2 1
Multiplication * 2*2 4
Modulus % 2%2 0
Increment ++ let $x=2
++$x
3
Decrement -- let $y=5
--$y
4
Negation - let $a=2
-$a
-2

2. Comparison Operator

Name Symbol Example Output
is equal = = 2= =2 True
is not equal != 2!=1 True
is not equal <> 2!=2 False
is greater than > 2>1 True
is less than < 3<4 True
is less than equal <= 2<=4 True
is greater than equal >= 2>=4 False

3. Assignment Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
assignment = $x=2 assigns 2 into x
combined operator (addition) += let $x=2
$x+=2
value of x will be 4
combined operator (subtraction) -= let $x=2
$x-=2
value of x will be 0
combined operator (multiplication) *= let $x=3
$x*=2
value of x will be 6
combined operator (division) /= let $x=2
$x/=2
value of x will be 1
combined operator (modulus) %= let $x=2
$x%=2
value of x will be 0

4. Logical Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
And and $x and $y true if both are true
Or or $x or $y true if at least one  is true
Xor xor $x xor $y true if both equal, false if both unequal
Not ! ! $a returns true if variable is false, and vice versa
And && $a && $b true if both are true
Or || $a || $b true if at least one variable is true

5.String Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
Concatenation Operator . (Period symbol) let $a="Hello", $b="World"
$a.$b
HelloWorld
Concatenating Assignment Operator .= let $a="Hello", $a.="World"
HelloWorld

6. Bitwise Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
And & let $a=11 and $b=5
$a & $b
1
Or (Inclusive Or) | let $a=11 and $b=5
$a | $b
15
Xor (Exclusive Or) ^ let $a=11 and $b=5
$a ^ $b
14
Not ~ let $a=11
~ $a
-12
Right shift >> let $a=11 and $b=2
$a >> $b
2
Left shift << let $a=11 and $b=2
$a << $b
44

7. Error Control Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
Error control operator @ $var=@$array['name']; will not generate any error message if index 'name' is not present

8. Execution Operator

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
backticks `` `ls -l` this operator is used to execute shell commands, the output can be stored in a variable also.

9. Array Operators:

Let us consider the following arrays:

$a=array("lang"=>"Java", "platform"=>"Cross");

$b=array("lang"=>"php", "platform"=>"Cross", "Year"=>"1995");

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
Union + $a + $b Array ( [lang] => php [paradigm] => imperative [Year] => 1995 )
Equality = = $a = = $b (Since both are unequal, no output will be generated)
Identity = = = $a = = = $b (Since both are unequal, no output will be generated)
Inequality != $a != $b 1 (Since both are unequal)
Inequality <> $a <> $b 1 (Since both are unequal)
Non-identity != = $a != = $b 1 (Since both are unequal)

10. Type operators:

In this example let us consider the following case:

<?php

class First{}

class Second{}

$a=new First();

print_r($a instanceof First);

print_r($a instanceof Second);

?>

Name Symbol Example Output/Meaning
instanceof instanceof AS ABOVE 1 (Since $a is the instance of class First) and
On the second line nothing will be generated as $a is not the instance of class Second
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Posted on: December 17, 2009

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