History of Bioinformatics

History of Bioinformatics History of Bioinformatics The Modern bioinformatics is can be classified into two broad categories, Bi ological Science and computational Science . Here is the data of hi storical events for both biology and computer

History of Bioinformatics


The Modern bioinformatics is can be classified into two broad categories, Biological Science and computational Science. Here is the data of historical events for both biology and computer science.


The history of biology in general, B.C. and before the discovery of genetic inheritance by G. Mendel in 1865, is extremely sketch and inaccurate. This was the start of Bioinformatics history. Gregor Mendel. is known as the "Father of Genetics". He did experiment on the cross-fertilization of different colors of the same species. He carefully recorded the data and analyzed the data. Mendel illustrated that the inheritance of traits could be more easily explained if it was controlled by factors passed down from generation to generation.

The understanding of genetics has advanced remarkably in the last thirty years. In 1972, Paul berg made the first recombinant DNA molecule using ligase. In that same year, Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Herbert Boyer produced the first recombinant DNA organism. In 1973, two important things happened in the field of genomics. The advancement of computing in 1960-70s resulted in the basic methodology of bioinformatics. However, it is the 1990s when the INTERNET arrived when the full fledged bioinformatics field was born.

Here are some of the major events in bioinformatics over the last several decades. The events listed in the list occurred long before the term, "bioinformatics", was coined.

BioInformatics Events

1665  Robert Hooke published Micrographia, described the cellular structure of cork. He also described microscopic examinations of fossilized plants and animals, comparing their microscopic structure to that of the living organisms they resembled. He argued for an organic origin of fossils, and suggested a plausible mechanism for their formation.
1683 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria.
1686 John Ray, John Ray's in his book "Historia Plantarum" catalogued and described 18,600 kinds of plants. His book gave the first definition of species based upon common descent.
1843 Richard Owen elaborated the distinction of homology and analogy.
1864 Ernst Haeckel (Häckel) outlined the essential elements of modern zoological classification.
1865 Gregory Mendel (1823-1884), Austria,  established the theory of genetic inheritance.
1902 The chromosome theory of heredity is proposed by Sutton and Boveri, working independently.
1962 Pauling's theory of molecular evolution
1905 The word "genetics" is coined by William Bateson.
1913 First ever linkage map created by Columbia undergraduate Alfred Sturtevant (working with T.H. Morgan).
1930 Tiselius, Uppsala University, Sweden, A new technique, electrophoresis, is introduced by Tiselius for separating proteins in solution. "The moving-boundary method of studying the electrophoresis of proteins" (published in Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Ser. IV, Vol. 7, No. 4)
1946 Genetic material can be transferred laterally between bacterial cells, as shown by Lederberg and Tatum.
1952 Alfred Day Hershey and Martha Chase proved that the DNA alone carries genetic information. This was proved on the basis of their bacteriophage research.
1961 Sidney Brenner, François Jacob, Matthew Meselson, identify messenger RNA,
1965 Margaret Dayhoff's Atlas of Protein Sequences
1970 Needleman-Wunsch algorithm
1977 DNA sequencing and software to analyze it (Staden)
1981 Smith-Waterman algorithm developed
1981 The concept of a sequence motif (Doolittle)
1982 GenBank Release 3 made public
1982 Phage lambda genome sequenced
1983 Sequence database searching algorithm (Wilbur-Lipman)
1985 FASTP/FASTN: fast sequence similarity searching
1988 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) created at NIH/NLM
1988 EMBnet network for database distribution
1990 BLAST: fast sequence similarity searching
1991 EST: expressed sequence tag sequencing
1993 Sanger Centre, Hinxton, UK
1994 EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton, UK
1995 First bacterial genomes completely sequenced
1996 Yeast genome completely sequenced
1998 Worm (multicellular) genome completely sequenced
1999 Fly genome completely sequenced
2000 Jeong H, Tombor B, Albert R, Oltvai ZN, Barabasi AL. The large-scale organization of metabolic networks. Nature 2000 Oct 5;407(6804):651-4, PubMed
2000 The genome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.3 Mbp) is published.
2000 The A. thaliana genome (100 Mb) is secquenced.
2001 The human genome (3 Giga base pairs) is published.